The scale length of heterogeneities revealed by seismic waves, not including the laboratory measurements of rock samples, spans 8 orders of magnitude. These heterogeneities with different scales have different effects to seismic waves. The velocity and density heterogeneities can cause the change in waveform, phase or travel-time and amplitude fluctuation, as well as apparent attenuation of the direct arrivals. They can also generate coda waves such as the P-coda, S-coda, and Lg-coda caused by the lithospheric heterogeneities and precursory waves such as the scattered PKP waves as the precursors to PKIKP caused by the heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary.
Seismic Wave Propagation and Scattering in the Heterogeneous Earth | Haruo Sato | Springer
The near-source or near-receiver structures can modify the seismic waveforms by resonance and other effect. Rough topography or rough interface can cause the coupling between body wave and surface wave. Aligned cracks in the crust can produce the effective anisotrophy.
A great complexity arises when heterogeneities have interaction with anisotrophy and nonlinearity. Unable to display preview. The purpose of this proposal is to harness these new found capabilities to enhance the quality of models of Earth's interior, in conjunction with improving models of the rupture process during an earthquake. On the face of it, this seems like a Herculean task because hundreds or even thousands of model parameters are involved in such inversions.
In principle, the sensitivity of a seismogram with respect to the model parameters may be calculated numerically, but this would require a number of forward calculations equal to the number of model parameters typically thousands. By drawing connections between seismic tomography, adjoint methods popular in climate and ocean dynamics, and time-reversal imaging, we have demonstrated that one iteration in tomographic and source inversions may be performed based upon just two calculations for each earthquake: one calculation for the current model and a second, adjoint, calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers as simultaneous, fictitious sources.
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This has finally opened the door to solving the full 3D inverse problem, i. We have demonstrated how this may be accomplished in 2D, and one of the main goals of this proposal is to extend these capabilities to fully 3D inverse problems. Broader impacts of the project include continuing the development of code that is useful to the seismic community and the support and training of a graduate student and a postdoc. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo administrative interval. Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites.
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Their policies may differ from this site. Fehler, M. Separation of scattering and intrinsic attenuation for the Kanto-Tokai region, Japan, using measurements of S-wave energy versus hypocentral distance. Small-scale structure in the lithosphere and asthenosphere deduced from arrival time and amplitude fluctuations at NOR-SAR. Journal of Geophysical Research , 93 , — Furumura, T. Subduction zone guided waves and the heterogeneity structure of the subducted plate: Intensity anomalies in northern Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research , , B Gusev, A.
Monte-Carlo simulation of record envelope of a near earthquake. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors , 49 , 30— Simulated envelopes of non-isotropically scattered body waves as compared to observed ones: another manifestation of fractal heterogeneity. Geophysical Journal International , , 49— Vertical profile of effective turbidity reconstructed from broadening of incoherent body-wave pulses. I- General approach and the inversion procedure. II- Application to Kamchatka data. Hedlin, M. Hennino, R. Observation of equipartition of seismic waves.
Physical Review Letters , 86 , — Hoshiba, M.
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Simulation of multiple scattered coda wave excitation based on the energy conservation law. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors , 67 , — Separation of scattering attenuation and intrinsic absorption in Japan using the multiple lapse time window analysis of full seismogram envelope. Journal of Geophysical Research , 98 , — Estimation of nonisotropic scattering in western Japan using coda wave envelopes: application of a multiple nonisotropic scattering model.
Journal of Geophysical Research , , — Seismic coda wave envelope in depth-dependent S wave velocity structure. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors , , 15— King, D. Precursors to PP. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors , 10 , — Correlation functions of random media. Koper, K. Earth and Planetary Science Letters , , — Korn, M.
Ambient seismic wave field
A modified energy flux model for lithospheric scattering of teleseismic body waves. Kravtsov, Y. Statistical properties of reflection traveltimes in 3-D randomly inhomogeneous and anisomeric media. Kubanza, M. Evaluation of strength of heterogeneity in the lithosphere from peak amplitude analyses of teleseismic short-period vector P waves.
Leyton, F. Using PKiKP coda to determine inner core structure: 2.
Determination of QC. Lobkis, O. Maeda, T. Constituents of vertical-component coda waves at long periods. Synthesis of coda wave envelopes in randomly inhomogeneous elastic media in a half-space: single scattering model including Rayleigh waves. Margerin, L. Introduction to radiative transfer of seismic waves. In Nolet, G. Washington: American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Monograph, Vol. Attenuation, transport and diffusion of scalar waves in textured random media.
Tectonophysics , , — Multiple scattering of high-frequency seismic waves in the deep earth: modeling and numerical examples. Journal of Geophysical Research , , Multiple scattering of high-frequency seismic waves in the deep earth: PKP precursor analysis and inversion for mantle granularity. Radiative tranfer and diffusion of waves in a layered medium: new insight into coda Q. Residence time of diffuse waves in the crust as a physical interpretation of coda Q: application to seismograms recorded in mexico.
Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scatterring of elastic waves. Nakahara, H. Seismogram envelope inversion for the spatial distribution of high-frequency energy radiation from the earthquake fault: application to the far east off Sanriku earthquake, Japan. Obara, K. Regional differences of random inhomogeneities around the volcanic front in the Kanto-Tokai area, Japan, revealed from the broadening of S wave seismogram envelopes.
Probabilistic theory of transport processes with polarization. Paul, A. Empirical synthesis of time-asymmetrical Green functions from the correlation of coda waves. Poupinet, G. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors , , — Monitoring velocity variations in the crust using earthquake doublets: an application to the Calaveras fault, California.
Journal of Geophysical Research , 89 , — Monitoring temporal variations of physical properties in the crust by cross-correlating the waveforms of seismic doublets. New York: Academic Press, Vol.