Macedonian grammar

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For aorist, in Macedonian are used perfective verbs, but sometimes, though very rarely, in non-standard folk speech there may be usage of imperfective verbs.


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Besides this basic usage, the aorist also can be used to express [11] :. The formation of the aorist for most verbs is not complex, but there are numerous small subcategories which must be learned. The suffix -ja is used for verbs of the I-division of I-subgroup and for the division of E-subgroup without vowel, i. The following tables show the paradigm of the aorist for all three major verb subgroups and their divisions:. The forms of the Macedonian present perfect are formed with the forms of 'to be' in present tense plus the L-form of the conjuncted verb, which is always perfective. Important to note is that for third person singular there is no presence of the verb 'to be'.

As an example of this tense, the sentence "I have read the book" is taken and translated in Macedonian:. Macedonian developed an alternative form of the sum-perfect, which is formed with the auxiliary verb 'to have' and a verbal adjective in neutral, instead of the verb 'to be' and verbal l-form. This is sometimes called 'ima-perfect'.

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This perfect tense is formed similarly as the perfect of perfective verbs i. As an example of this tense, the sentence "I have been reading the book" is taken and translated in Macedonian:.

Macedonian grammar - Wikipedia

Like the perfect of perfective verbs, Macedonian also developed an alternative form of the sum-perfect, which is formed with the auxiliary verb 'to have' and a verbal adjective in neutral, instead of the verb 'to be' and verbal l-form. There is also a slight difference in meaning between 'sum-perfect' and 'ima-perfect' regarding perfect of imperfective verbs. Ima-perfect usually denotes resultative meaning. With the forms of future tense in Macedonian are expressed actions that are planned to happen in future.

Usually, when we speak about future, we mean expressing events that should happen soon, however, there is a special form in Macedonian to express future events from past perspective, or event that happened after some other event and this is treated as separate tense called 'Future-in-the-past'. In this respect, both Macedonian and Bulgarian differ from other South Slavic languages , since in both the clitic is fixed, whereas in Serbo-Croatian it inflects for person and number [15].

Besides the main usage, the future tense is used to express [17] :. An interesting fact of vernacular usage of a past tense form of the verb which can be used in a future sense as well, although this construction is mostly limited to older speakers, and is used to describe the degree of certainty that some event will take place in the future or under some condition.

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This characteristic is shared with Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin and Serbian languages. The positive form is identical to all the aforementioned forms. A subtype of the superlative — the absolute superlative — also present in some other South Slavic languages and Romance languages such as Italian and Spanish , expresses the highest quality without comparison. Since Macedonian lost the case system, the prepositions are very important for creation and expression of various grammatical categories. Regarding the form, the prepositions can be: simple vo, na, za, do, so, niz, pred, zad, etc.

Based on the meaning the preposition express, they can be divided into: [18] [19] [20]. The particles are used to determine other words, form some grammatical categories and emphasize some words or phrases. Regarding the function of the particles, they can be divided into the following groups: [23] [24]. The first ten cardinal and ordinal numerals in the Macedonian are:. The phraseological units have special linguistic characteristics and meaning.

Within one sentence, the words may be joined together in order to create units of various types. For instance, the word nut can be combined with many adjectives, such as big nut , small nut etc. Moreover, the word nut can be combined with other parts of speech as well, such as with verbs as in the sentence I ate a nut.

These types of combinations are led by the general principles of the phraseology , which states that the words in the sentences can be freely combined. Within these combinations or collocations, each word keeps its original meaning, so the meaning of the whole construction is equal to the meaning of its constituents. Besides the word construction with loose connections, in Macedonian there are word constructions that are not freely combined, which means they are permanently combined together. As an illustration of these two types of connections are the following sentences, where the noun phrase "hard nut" is used [27] :.

Macedonian phrasebook

In the first sentence, "hard nut" is a common collocation, where the words are connected freely and can be changed with other words in different contexts. It is important to note that the translation of the Bible made in the 9th century by Cyril and Methodius the two monks who invented the Cyrillic alphabet into a Bulgarian dialect spoken in Macedonia called ancient Bulgarian or Paleoslavic represents the most ancient document of all Slavic languages.

We hope the lessons above helped you learn Macedonian. To learn other languages please check our homepage here: Learn Languages. Don't forget to bookmark this page. This is sometimes called 'ima-perfect'. This perfect tense is formed similarly as the perfect of perfective verbs i. As an example of this tense, the sentence "I have been reading the book" is taken and translated in Macedonian:. Like the perfect of perfective verbs, Macedonian also developed an alternative form of the sum-perfect, which is formed with the auxiliary verb 'to have' and a verbal adjective in neutral, instead of the verb 'to be' and verbal l-form.

There is also a slight difference in meaning between 'sum-perfect' and 'ima-perfect' regarding perfect of imperfective verbs. Ima-perfect usually denotes resultative meaning.

With the forms of future tense in Macedonian are expressed actions that are planned to happen in future. Usually, when we speak about future, we mean expressing events that should happen soon, however, there is a special form in Macedonian to express future events from past perspective, or event that happened after some other event and this is treated as separate tense called 'Future-in-the-past'.

In this respect, both Macedonian and Bulgarian differ from other South Slavic languages , since in both the clitic is fixed, whereas in Serbo-Croatian it inflects for person and number [15]. Besides the main usage, the future tense is used to express [17] :. An interesting fact of vernacular usage of a past tense form of the verb which can be used in a future sense as well, although this construction is mostly limited to older speakers, and is used to describe the degree of certainty that some event will take place in the future or under some condition.

This characteristic is shared with Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin and Serbian languages. The positive form is identical to all the aforementioned forms. A subtype of the superlative — the absolute superlative — also present in some other South Slavic languages and Romance languages such as Italian and Spanish , expresses the highest quality without comparison.

Since Macedonian lost the case system, the prepositions are very important for creation and expression of various grammatical categories. Regarding the form, the prepositions can be: simple vo, na, za, do, so, niz, pred, zad, etc. Based on the meaning the preposition express, they can be divided into: [18] [19] [20]. The particles are used to determine other words, form some grammatical categories and emphasize some words or phrases. Regarding the function of the particles, they can be divided into the following groups: [23] [24]. The first ten cardinal and ordinal numerals in the Macedonian are:.

The phraseological units have special linguistic characteristics and meaning. Within one sentence, the words may be joined together in order to create units of various types.

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For instance, the word nut can be combined with many adjectives, such as big nut , small nut etc. Moreover, the word nut can be combined with other parts of speech as well, such as with verbs as in the sentence I ate a nut. These types of combinations are led by the general principles of the phraseology , which states that the words in the sentences can be freely combined.

Within these combinations or collocations, each word keeps its original meaning, so the meaning of the whole construction is equal to the meaning of its constituents. Besides the word construction with loose connections, in Macedonian there are word constructions that are not freely combined, which means they are permanently combined together. As an illustration of these two types of connections are the following sentences, where the noun phrase "hard nut" is used [27] :. In the first sentence, "hard nut" is a common collocation, where the words are connected freely and can be changed with other words in different contexts.

On the other hand, in the second sentence the noun phrase "hard nut" i. If these words are changed, the meaning of the phrase will be lost. This is relatively new linguistic discipline. In Macedonia, and in the Macedonistics in general, it developed during the 19th century, where the first few research results have been provided. The Onomastics for a long period of time has been considered as part of various different scientific disciplines, such as Geography , History or Ethnography , until it became a discipline on its own in the 20th century. The Macedonian Onomastics, generally speaking, is divided into toponomastics and anthroponomastics.

A Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language is the title of the first English language grammar of the Macedonian language.

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The grammar was written by Horace Lunt, an American working in Yugoslavia. The Balkan Sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. Several features are found across these languages though not all apply to every single language.

Some of the languages use these features for their standard language i. While some of these languages may share little vocabulary, their grammars have very extensive similarities; for example they have similar case systems, in those that have preserved grammatical case and verb conjugation systems and have all become more analytic, although to differing degrees.

Some of those languages mark evidentiality, which is uncommon among Indo-European languages, and was likely inspired by contacts with Turkish. The dialect is mainly spoken in the city of Debar and the surrounding areas in Macedonia. The Debar dialect is closed with the Reka dialect and the dialect of Galicnik.

In the dialect are used a lot of archaic words. Also in some extent, the dialect shares some similarities with the Tetovo dialect. The dialect is very well known for using masculine forms of direct and indirect objects, for male and female.

Macedonian verbs are conventionally divided into three main conjugations according to the thematic vowel used in the citation form i.

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