Shifting Shape, Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in Fox Koan

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  • Like Cats and Dogs Contesting the Mu Koan in Zen Buddhism - 道客巴巴.

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Because causality necessarily means full cause ennin and complete effect manga , there is no reason for a discussion concerning "falling into" or "not falling into," "obscuring" or "not obscuring" [causality] Although "not obscuring causality" released the wild fox body in the current age of Buddha Sakyamuni, it may not have been effective in the age of Buddha Kasyapa. This view, which is in accordance with Wumen's position, notes the contingency of causality and non-causality and the need to transcend a limited perspective of cause and effect.

Zen Riddles for Millennials

Some of you may think that crossing countless mountains and rivers to teach lay students is giving priority to lay people over monks. Others may wonder if I taught them dharma that has never been expounded and has never been heard. However, there is no dharma that has never been expounded and has never been heard. I just expounded this dharma to guide people: Those who practice wholesome actions rise and those who practice unwholesome actions fall. You practice cause and harvest the effect…. Thus I try to clarify, speak, identify with, and practice this teaching of cause and effect.

Do you all understand it? Those who say "one does not fall into cause and effect" deny causation, thereby falling into the lower realms; those who say "one cannot ignore cause and effect" clearly identify with cause and effect. When people hear about identifying with cause and effect, they are freed from the lower realms. Do not doubt this. Many of our contemporaries who consider themselves students of Zen deny causation. How do we know? They confuse "not ignoring" with "not falling into.

Either notion, in other words, can lead to liberation or to the perpetuation of suffering. Two colors, one game. Not darkening, not falling: One thousand mistakes, ten thousand mistakes. Thus awakened persons neither "fall into" nor do they "not fall into" cause and effect, because they are one with cause and effect, and because they are one with cause and effect, they do not darken or ignore cause and effect.

The same die shows two faces. Not controlled or controlled, Both are a grievous error. Zen Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as the Chan school of Chinese Buddhism and developed into various schools. Zen emphasizes rigorous self-control , meditation-practice, insight into the nature of things , the personal expression of this insight in daily life for the benefit of others; as such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine and favors direct understanding through spiritual practice and interaction with an accomplished teacher.

According to the modern Chan master Sheng Yen , these practices are termed the "five methods for stilling or pacifying the mind" and serve to focus and purify the mind, can lead to the dhyana absorptions. Chan shares the practice of the four foundations of mindfulness and the Three Gates of Liberation with early Buddhism and classic Mahayana.

Chinese Buddhists developed their own meditation manuals and texts, one of the most influential being the works of the Tiantai patriarch, Zhiyi. A square or round cushion placed on a padded mat is used to sit on. To regulate the mind, Zen students are directed towards counting breaths. Either both exhalations and inhalations are counted; the count can be up to ten, this process is repeated until the mind is calmed.

Like Cats and Dogs : Contesting the Mu Koan in Zen Buddhism in SearchWorks catalog

Zen teachers like Omori Sogen teach a series of long and deep exhalations and inhalations as a way to prepare for regular breath meditation. Attention is placed on the energy center below the navel. Zen teachers promote diaphragmatic breathing, stating that the breath must come from the lower abdomen , that this part of the body should expand forward as one breathes. Over time the breathing should become smoother and slower. When the counting becomes an encumbrance, the practice of following the natural rhythm of breathing with concentrated attention is recommended.

Another common form of sitting meditation is called "Silent illumination"; this practice was traditionally promoted by the Caodong school of Chinese Chan and is associated with Hongzhi Zhengjue who wrote various works on the practice.

In Hongzhi's practice of " nondual objectless meditation" the mediator strives to be aware of the totality of phenomena instead of focusi. This contains stories of his interactions with teachers and students; the recorded lectures are a mixture of the iconoclastic. Linji is reputed for being leading students to awakening by hitting and shouting. The Third Gate is the "mystery in the mystery", "involving nonconceptual expressions such as striking or shouting, which are intended to remove all of the defects implicit in conceptual understanding".

Zen in the United States Zen was introduced in the United States at the end of the 19th century by Japanese teachers who went to America to serve groups of Japanese immigrants and become acquainted with the American culture. After World War II , interest from non-Asian Americans grew rapidly; this resulted in the commencement of an indigenous American Zen tradition which influences the larger western world.

In , the World Parliament of Religions was held in Chicago , it was a landmark event for the introduction of Asian religions to a western audience. Although most of the delegates to the Parliament were Christians of various denominations, the Buddhist nations of China , Japan and Sri Lanka sent representatives. In the January , issue of The Dial magazine, the publication of the New England Transcendentalist Club, Henry David Thoreau , one of the great originals of the American Renaissance and author of Walden, introduced a translation of the Parable of the Medicinal Herbs chapter of the Lotus Sutra , the core and heart of all Buddhist teachings, to the American public.

Japanese Rinzai was represented by Soyen Shaku , the teacher of D. Other Buddhist delegates included a Japanese translator. Paul Carus attended as an observer; the Parliament provided the first major public forum from which Buddhists could address the Western public. Zen Buddhism was the first imported Buddhist trend. Though Soyen Shaku, Nyogen Senzaki and Sokei-an , were among the first to reach a western audience, the single most important influence was D. Suzuki, who popularized Zen with his extensive writings. Early converts included Ruth Fuller Sasaki.

In , Soyen Shaku was invited to speak at the World Parliament of Religions held in Chicago, he made the trip to what was considered the "barbaric" United States, although his associates "discouraged him from attending". In , a wealthy American couple invited Shaku to stay in the United States. For nine months he lived near San Francisco , where he established a small zendo in the home of Alexander and Ida Russell and gave regular zazen lessons. Shaku became the first Zen Buddhist priest to teach in North America.

Shaku was soon followed by a young monk from his home temple in Japan. Senzaki worked for the Russells and as a hotel porter and owner. James Ford says Senzaki referred to himself as a " mushroom ": no deep root, no branches, no flowers and "probably no seeds". In Senzaki gave a talk in English on a paper by Shaku. A teacher of Robert Aitken , Senzaki established an itinerant sitting hall from San Francisco to Los Angeles , where he taught until his death in Another Zen teacher named Sokatsu Shaku , one of Shaku's senior students, arrived in late and founded a Zen meditation center called Ryomokyo-kai.

Although he stayed only a few years and had limited contact with the English-speaking public, one of his disciples, Shigetsu Sasaki, made a permanent home in America. Sasaki, better known under his monastic name Sokei-an, spent a few years wandering the west coast of the US. After completing his training and being ordained in , he returned to New York to teach.

In , his small group incorporated as the Buddhist Society of America. By the late s, one of his most active supporters was Ruth Fuller Everett, an American socialite and the mother-in-law of Alan Watts.

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Shortly before Sokei-an's death in , he and Everett would wed, at which point she took the name Ruth Fuller Sasaki. Suzuki, another Japanese associate of Shaku's, had a great literary impact. At the World Parliament of Religions in , Paul Carus befriended Shaku and requested his help in translating and publishing Oriental spiritual literature in the West.

Shaku instead recommended Suzuki a young scholar and his former disciple. Starting in , Suzuki worked from Carus ' home in Illinois. At the same time, Suzuki began writing Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism , published in Through English language essays and books, such as Essays in Zen Buddhism, he became a visible expositor of Zen Buddhism and its unofficial ambassador to Western readers until his death in His book, An Introduction to Zen Buddhism , featured a thirty-page introduction by Carl Jung , an emblem of the deepening relationship between Buddhism and major Western thinkers.

Goddard was a Christian missionary to China. In , he spent a year living in a Zen monastery in Japan.


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In , he founded "The Followers of Buddha , an American Brotherhood," with the goal of applying the traditional monastic structure of Buddhism more than Senzaki and Sokei-an had previously; the group was unsuccessful, as no Americans were recruited to join as monks and attempts failed to attract a Chinese Chan master to come to the United States.

Mazu Daoyi Baso redirects here. For the island, see Baso. Mazu Daoyi was an influential abbot of Chan Buddhism during the Tang dynasty; the earliest recorded use of the term "Chan school" is from his Extensive Records. Master Ma's teaching style of "strange words and extraordinary actions" became paradigmatic Zen lore, his family name was Ma -- Mazu meaning Master Ma.

He was born in northwest of Chengdu in Sichuan. During his years as master, Mazu lived in Jiangxi , from which he took the name "Jiangxi Daoyi". In the Transmission of the Lamp , compiled in , Mazu is described as follows: His appearance was remarkable, he glared about him like a tiger. If he stretched out his tongue, it reached up over his nose. According to the Transmission of the Lamp, Mazu was a student of Nanyue Huairang at Mount Heng in HunanA story in the entry on Nanyue Huairang in the Transmission of the Lamp is regarded as Mazu's enlightenment-account, though the text does not claim it as such.

An earlier and more primitive version of this story appears in the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall , transcribed in Reverend Ma was sitting in a spot, Reverend Rang took a tile and sat on the rock facing him, rubbing it. Master Ma asked, "What are you doing? Mazu became Nanyue Huairang's dharma—successor.

Mazu settled at Kung-kung Mountain by Nankang , southern Kiangsi province, where he founded a monastery and gathered scores of disciples. Traditionally, Mazu Daoyi is depicted as a successor in the lineage of Huineng , since his teacher Nanyue Huairang is regarded as a student and successor of Huineng; this connection between Huineng and Nanyue Huairang is doubtful, being the product of rewritings of Chan history to place Mazu Daoyi in the traditional lineages.

Mazu Daoyi is the most influential teaching master in the formation of Chan Buddhism.

Dogen and the Koan Tradition A Tale of Two Shobogenzo Texts S U N Y Series in Philosophy PDF

While Chan became the dominant school of Buddhism during the Song dynasty, the earlier Tang dynasty and Mazu Daoyi's Hongzhou school became regarded as the "golden age" of Chan. The An Lushan Rebellion led to a loss of control by the Tang dynasty, metropolitan Chan began to lose its status while "other schools were arising in outlying areas controlled by warlords; these are the forerunners of the Chan.

Their origins are obscure; this school developed "shock techniques such as shouting and using irrational retorts to startle their students into realization". These shock techniques became part of the traditional and still popular image of Chan masters displaying irrational and strange behaviour to aid their students.

Part of this image was due to misinterpretations and translation errors, such as the loud belly shout known as katsu. In Chinese "katsu" means "to shout", which has traditionally been translated as "yelled'katsu'" — which should mean "yelled a yell"During staunchly Taoist Emperor Wuzong of Tang persecuted Buddhist schools in China alongside with other dissidents, such as Christians: It was a desperate attempt on the part of the hard-pressed central government, in disarray since the An Lu-shan rebellion of , to gain some measure of political and military relief by preying on the Buddhist temples with their immense wealth and extensive lands.

This persecution was devastating for metropolitan Chan, but the school of Mazu and his likes survived, took a leading role in the Chan of the Tang. Though regarded as an unconventional teacher, Mazu's teachings emphasise Buddha-nature: et each of you see into his own mind However eloquently I may talk about all kinds of things as innumerable as the sands of the Ganges , the Mind shows no increase You may talk so much about it, it is still your Mind. Mazu Daoyi , in order to shake his students out of routine consciousness, employed novel and unconventional teaching methods.

Mazu is credited with the innovations of using katsu and unexpectedly calling to a person by name as that person is leaving; this last is said to summon original consciousness, from. Mazu employed silent gestures, non-responsive answers to questions, was known to grab and twist the nose of a disciple. Utilizing this variety of unexpected shocks, his teaching methods challenged both habit and vanity, a push that might inspire sudden kensho. A well-known story depicts Mazu practicing zazen but being rebuked by his teacher, Nanyue Huairang , comparing seated meditation with polishing a tile.

According to Faure, the criticism is not about dhyana as such, but "the idea of "becoming a Buddha " by means of any practice, lowered to the standing of a "means" to achieve an "end""; the criticism of seated dhyana reflects a change in the role and position of monks in Tang society, who "undertook only pious works, reciting sacred texts and remaining seated in dhyana".

Seated dhy. He is regarded as the reviver of the Rinzai school from a moribund period of stagnation, refocusing it on its traditionally rigorous training methods integrating meditation and koan practice. Hakuin was born in at the foot of Mount Fuji , his mother was a devout Nichiren Buddhist , it is that her piety was a major influence on his decision to become a Buddhist monk.

As a child, Hakuin attended a lecture by a Nichiren monk on the topic of the Eight Hot Hells; this impressed the young Hakuin, he developed a pressing fear of hell, seeking a way to escape it. He came to the conclusion that it would be necessary to become a monk.

While at Daisho-ji, he read the Lotus Sutra , considered by the Nichiren sect to be the king of all Buddhist sutras, found it disappointing, saying "it consisted of nothing more than simple tales about cause and effect". At the age of nineteen, he came across in his studies the story of the Chinese Ch'an master Yantou Quanhuo , brutally murdered by bandits.

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Hakuin despaired over this story, as it showed that a great monk could not be saved from a bloody death in this life. How could he, just a simple monk, hope to be saved from the tortures of hell in the next life? He gave up his goal of becoming an enlightened monk, not wanting to return home in shame, traveled around studying literature and poetry. While studying with the poet-monk Bao, he had an experience that put him back along the path of monasticism. He saw a number of books piled out in books from every school of Buddhism. Struck by the sight of all these volumes of literature, Hakuin prayed to the gods of the Dharma to help him choose a path, he reached out and took a book.

Inspired by this, he dedicated himself to the practice of Zen, he again went traveling for two years, settling down at the Eigen-ji temple when he was twenty-three. It was here, he locked himself away in a shrine in the temple for seven days, reached an intense awakening upon hearing the ringing of the temple bell. However, his master refused to acknowledge this enlightenment , Hakuin left the temple.


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Hakuin left again. Hakuin left Shoju after eight months of study, without receiving formal dharma transmission from Shoju Rojin, nor from any other teacher, but Hakuin considered himself to be an heir of Shoju Rojin. Today Hakuin is considered to have received dharma transmission from Shoju.

Hakuin realized, he was unable to sustain the tranquility of mind of the Zen hall in the midst of daily life. When he was twenty-six he read that "all wise men and eminent priests who lack the Bodhi-mind fall into Hell"; this raised a "great doubt" in him, since he thought that the formal entrance into monkhood and the daily enactment of rituals was the bodhi-mind. Only with his final awakening, at age 42, did he realize what "bodhi-mind" means, namely working for the good of others. Hakuin's early extreme exertions affected his health, at one point in his young life he fell ill for two years, experiencing what would now be classified as a nervous breakdown by Western medicine.

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