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The Spanish Frontier in North America
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Strahan: for G. Nicol; and T. Cadell, James Cook's account of his final journey included geographic descriptions of the Pacific Coast,assertions of the abundance of furs and resources to be found in the region, as well as accounts of contact with indigenous peoples. The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke: and an essay towards the topography, and natural history of that important country.
Wilmington: James Adams, John Filson's work helped popularize the idea of Kentucky and the trans-Appalachian region as a garden waiting for settlement by hardy Americans like Daniel Boone, whose biography he also wrote. Filson recognized that the region would be linked economically to the West via New Orleans and St. Lous, rather than the East.
See his map in the archive. Clark does suggest that such an expedition be undertaken by a small group of men schooled in Native languages and traditions.
Audiobook: The Spanish frontier in North America by Weber David J.
The preferred boundaries of future states are laid out and vaguely classical and Indian names are given the various regions. Congress did not adopt the Ordinance as Jefferson submitted it, primarily rejecting the abolition of slavery in the region and Jefferson's nomenclature. As passed by Congress, it became the Ordinance of March 1, Statute Virginia's delegates cede western counties to the nation.
The wrangling between Virginia, Maryland, and other "landed" states and the Congress over the use and distribution of western territory was a long and contentious process. With this document, Virginia's delegates cede land northwest of the Ohio River to the nation. March 29, Letter George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, March 29, George Washington writes of the importance of water routes into the western territories of the United States.
May 20, Statute Land Ordinance of Until the Homestead Act of , this ordinance, with detailed instructions as to the sectioning of land into township and plats, was the guiding document in the division and dispersal of Western lands. September 26, Letter George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, September 26, While anticipating the arrival of Houdon, who is to begin the sculpture commissioned by the State of Virginia, George Washington informs Thomas Jefferson that subscriptions for inland expeditions up the Potomac and James Rivers have all been sold to American investors.
Washington also informs Jefferson of the Virginia Assembly's developing plans for the western part of the state, particularly in relation to North Carolina and Kentucky. November 28, Treaty Treaty of Hopewell This treaty further codified the relationship between the Cherokees and the American government. Jefferson writes that Kentucky's possible cession would be disastrous to his hopes that the new nation serve as the core of settlement for both North and South America.
Parsons letter to Stiles was forwarded to Jefferson, who was extremely interested in the discoveries along Big Bone Lick and the Ohio River. Salem: Dabney and Cushing, An avid supporter of western settlement, Manasseh Cutler helped form the Ohio Company and served as that organization's representative to Congress as the body debated the Ordinance of This work is available at Eighteenth Century Collections Online.
July 13, Letter Northwest Ordinance, July 13 Setting the stage for western expansion, the Northwest Ordinance of shaped the development of the territory north and west of the Ohio River. August 10, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr, August 10, Thomas Jefferson outlines the rudiments of a gentleman's education, noting the importance of the Spanish language to the future dealings of the United States. Jefferson segues into a brief discussion of the scientific possibilities inherent in the exploration of North America, and the development of science by a people concerned with freedom and virtue.
May 10, Letter Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, May 10, Thomas Jefferson expresses his hopes for the future exploration and navigation of the Ohio and Potomac Rivers, adding a discussion about other avenues of water navigation that could promote western expansion and commerce. Jefferson also informs Washington he hopes to return to the United States, having appealed to John Jay for permission to do so. The letter also includes references to the role of the Marquis de la Fayette in French politics. November 21, Letter Thomas Jefferson to William Short, November 21, This letter illustrates Thomas Jefferson's interest in, and knowledge of, weather and the science of measurement, as he recounts the tribulations of a sea voyage.
Jefferson believes establishing the nation's credit is critical to showing its ability to go to war should England and Spain do so. August 2, Letter Thomas Jefferson to William Carmichael, August 2, The importance of the Mississippi River to American growth and economic success is uppermost in Jefferson's mind as Spain and England seem on the brink of war. August 26, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Henry Knox, August 26, Thomas Jefferson discusses the Treaty of Hopewell and its ramifications for national expansion, particularly in regard to treaties made between states and native groups.
Jefferson answered on August 28, Jefferson is particularly concerned with the United States' position in the event of a conflict between England and Spain. In this note, he offers further comments to the note penned August 28, Containing an account of the soil and natural productions of those regions; together with observations on the manners of the Indians. Although Jefferson did not own a copy of Bartram's work until Jackson, 92 , as fellow members of the American Philosophical Society and frequent correspondents, Jefferson was well aware of Bartram's reports on Native American life and the natural history of the southeastern United States.
Jefferson also laments the problems George Rogers Clark is having, likely as a result of ongoing financial and health issues. August 10, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Henry Knox, August 10, The validity of private contracts with Native American groups in the face of Federal and state authority is addressed in this letter concerning the South Yazoo Company.
December 22, Report Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, December 22, Thomas Jefferson advises President Washington on the prospects of negotiations with the Spanish and urges him to direct commissioners to focus on the navigation of the Mississippi. February 25, Letter David Campbell to Thomas Jefferson, February 25, David Campbell writes to Thomas Jefferson, outlining the difficulties in establishing federal authority in the newly organized Southwest Territory.
Significantly, Campbell argues for the supremacy of the Constitution over North Carolina state law in the region and asserts that the land and property of Native groups should be left unmolested. March 18, Report Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, March 18, A detailed examination of the current and future prospect for western expansion and the legal and political ramifications of such movement. Jefferson also expresses concern over the seizure of Native American lands, concerned that an Indian War would be expensive. January 22, Letter George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, January 22, George Washington responds to Jefferson's note about Michaux's expedition and asks that his name be added to the subscription list.
February 16, Report Thomas Jefferson to the United States House of Representatives, February 16, In the report, Thomas Jefferson's understanding of American land policy in the west, particularly Indian treaties and possession and white claims, is clearly laid out as he reports on the land claim of a Revolutionary War veteran.
March 10, Report Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, March 10, In his official capacity as Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson writes to George Washington, reiterating the boundaries of the western frontiers of the United States, particularly as they apply to treaties with Native groups.
Regarding Virginia's unsettled boundary with the southwestern territory, Thomas Jefferson anticipates population growth and formal organization in that region. Spanish authorities viewed American settlements in the West with great suspicion and accused the United States of encouraging Native groups to violence. Jefferson addresses both the accusations and the United States' policies towards the Chickasaw and Creek Nations. February 6, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Francois Ivernois, February 6, Thomas Jefferson expresses hopes for the development of higher education and the sciences in America.
Jefferson also notes his ongoing interest in agricultural researches.
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Philadelphia: Printed for the author by John Bioren, Barton's parallel vocabulary of native words is presented here to provide evidence for his assertion of the Asian origins of Native American languages. A frequent correspondent of Jefferson's, Barton's work in natural history was wide-ranging and influential among his fellow American Philosophical Society members.
As one of Meriwether Lewis' scientific mentors, Barton's views on botany and native life were surely impacted the expedition. Three years travels through the interior parts of North-America, for more than five thousand miles. Boston, Carver's travelogue borrows from Hennepin, Lahontan, and other explorers to propogate ideas about "height-of-land" and the great river "Oregan. Thomas Jefferson discusses political and diplomatic affairs, concerned over tensions with England and Spain. Additional worries about hostilities along the western borders occupy his thoughts.
June 17, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Aaron Burr, June 17, Thomas Jefferson contemplates the actions of the newly seated Congress in the light of foreign pressure and partisan politics. Jefferson's worries about the changing character of American politics are focused on expansion and the possibility of serious French colonization in Louisiana. Clark also uses the letter to introduce Jefferson to the work of William Dunbar. Jefferson asks Dunbar for information on the land and inhabitants of the "regions beyond" the Mississippi River, making particular note of the importance of recording the languages of indigenous peoples as a means to understanding their origins.
Clarks takes the liberty of sending along a box of pecans for Jefferson. January 16, Letter Thomas Jefferson to William Dunbar, January 16, Thomas Jefferson writes to William Dunbar, thanking him for promised communications about Native languages from Western groups and meteorological observations that may be used in comparative studies. Reports from Dunbar were read at the American Philosophical Society and several appear in the "Reports" section of this archive.
January 27, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Priestley, January 27, Thomas Jefferson writes to Joseph Priestley of his hopes for American education, including public lands for educational institutions. January 29, Letter Thomas Jefferson to John Breckinridge, January 29, Thomas Jefferson advocates the creation of a separate Western judiciary in the newly laid-out regions.
The tumult in France causes him to worry over the fate of the American Republic. May 29, Letter Daniel Clark to Thomas Jefferson, May 29, Daniel Clark writes to Jefferson of Philip Nolan's departure for the United States, and notes that an inhabitant of the land "West of the Mississippi" accompanies him for Jefferson's edification, so that he may be "the first to acquire particular information of a Country now almost unknown to the U.
June 30, Report William Dunbar to the American Philosophical Society, via Thomas Jefferson, read January 16, This letter, with several other missives and reports written by Dunbar, were forwarded by Jefferson to the American Philosphical Society, where they were read before the Society and later published in theTransactions of the Philosophical Society of Americain Dunbar provides detailed notes on the climate in and near Natchez. This letter, with several other missives and reports written by Dunbar, were forward by Jefferson to the American Philosphical Society, where they were read before the Society and later published in theTransactions of the Philosophical Society of Americain Dunbar describes the sign language used by Native Americans between the Mississippi River and the "Western American ocean.
December 16, Letter Thomas Jefferson to Caspar Wistar, December 16, Thomas Jefferson introduces Caspar Wistar to the work of William Dunbar, excited at the prospect of a scientific correspondent "on the very verge of the great terra incognita of our western continent. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the world: in which the coast of north-west America has been carefully examined and accurately surveyed : undertaken by His Majesty's command, principally with a view to ascertain the existence of any navigable communication between the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans, and performed in the years , , , , , and , in the Discovery sloop of war, and armed tender Chatham, under the command of Captain George Vancouver.
London: G. Robinson, Vancouver's work provided detailed charts and descriptions of the Pacific Coast and the landscape the Corps of Discovery would face while there. January 12, Letter Thomas Jefferson to William Dunbar, January 12, Thomas Jefferson acknowledges William Dunbar's July 14, letter and enclosures; he also touches on other scientific matters and expresses his satisfaction at having a scientific correspondent on the western edge of the country.
State cession of lands to the companies are germane to the discussion. This report, with several other missives and reports written by Dunbar, were forwarded by Jefferson to the American Philosphical Society, where they were read before the Society and later published in theTransactions of the Philosophical Society of Americain Dunbar's detailed descriptions of the weather and growing conditions in Lousiana were sure to interest Jefferson. Dunbar anticipates fossil finds west of the Mississippi River, based on information forwarded by the late Philip Nolan.
See the "Reports" section of this archive. November 24, Letter Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe, November 24, Thomas Jefferson wonders about the possible use of Western territory for slaves or free blacks in the aftermath of Gabriel's Rebellion. He is concerned about the possible repercussions for domestic and international relations if they are sent west or remain on the continent; St. Domingo seems a good possible destination.
The Spanish Frontier in North America (Yale Western Americana Series)
A map exhibiting all the new discoveries in the interior parts of North America, additions to Voyages from Montreal on the river St. Laurence, through the continent of North America, to the frozen and Pacific oceans, in the years and : with a preliminary account of the rise, progress and present state of the fur trade of that country. London: R. Concerned with The Spanish Frontier in North America. David J. In , when Ponce de Leon stepped ashore on a beach of what is now Florida, Spain gained its first foothold in North America.
For the next three hundred years, Spaniards ranged through the continent building forts to defend strategic places, missions to proselytize Indians, and farms, ranches, and towns to reconstruct a familiar Iberian world.